主页 Delphi Complete Paintings of Francisco de Goya (Illustrated)
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[image: img1.jpg] Francisco de Goya (1746-1828) [image: img2.jpg] Contents The Highlights THE PARASOL THE BLIND GUITARIST THE MEADOW OF SAN ISIDRO BLIND MAN’S BUFF YARD WITH MADMEN THE BLACK DUTCHESS WITCHES’ FLIGHT THE MIRACLE OF ST. ANTHONY PORTRAIT OF ANDRÉS DEL PERAL PORTRAIT OF GASPAR MELCHOR DE JOVELLANOS THE SLEEP OF REASON PRODUCES MONSTERS CHARLES IV AND HIS FAMILY THE NUDE MAJA PORTRAIT OF DOÑA ISABEL DE PORCEL PORTRAIT OF ANTONIA ZÁRATE THE BURIAL OF THE SARDINE PORTRAIT OF THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON THE THIRD OF MAY, 1808: THE EXECUTION OF THE DEFENDERS OF MADRID SELF-PORTRAIT WITH DR. ARRIETA SATURN DEVOURING ONE OF HIS CHILDREN THE MILKMAID OF BORDEAUX The Paintings THE COMPLETE PAINTINGS ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PAINTINGS The Drawings LIST OF PRINTS AND DRAWINGS The Biography GOYA by François Crastre The Delphi Classics Catalogue [image: img3.png] © Delphi Classics 2016 Version 1 [image: img4.jpg] Masters of Art Series Francisco de Goya [image: img5.jpg] By Delphi Classics, 2016 COPYRIGHT Masters of Art - Francisco de Goya First published in the United Kingdom in 2016 by Delphi Classics. © Delphi Classics, 2016. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of the publisher, nor be otherwise circulated in any form other than that in which it is published. Delphi Classics is an imprint of Delphi Publishing Ltd Hastings, East Sussex United Kingdom Contact: email@example.com www.delphiclassics.com Explore Romanticism with Delphi Classics [image: img6.jpg] For the first time in digital publishing history, Delphi Classics is proud to present the complete works of these artists in eReading collections. www.delphiclassics.com The Highlights [image: img7.jpg] Fuendetodos, a town in the Campo de Belchite comarca, Aragon, Spai; n — Goya’s birthplace [image: img8.jpg] The house of Goya’s birth [image: img9.jpg] View inside Goya’s birthplace [image: img10.jpg] Goya as a young man, c. 1771 THE HIGHLIGHTS [image: img11.png] In this section, a sample of Goya’s most celebrated works is provided, with concise introductions, special ‘detail’ reproductions and additional biographical images. THE PARASOL [image: img12.jpg] The fourth of six children, Francisco de Goya was born in Fuendetodos, Aragón, Spain, on 30 March 1746 to José Benito de Goya y Franque and Gracia de Lucientes y Salvador. The family had moved that year from the city of Zaragoza, though for what reason remains a mystery. They were a lower middle-class family, with José being the son of a notary and of Basque origin, earning his living as a gilder specialising in religious and decorative craftwork, having worked on the principal cathedral of Zaragoza. Francisco’s maternal family had pretensions of nobility and the house, although a modest brick cottage, was owned by her family and bore their crest. By 1749 José and Gracia bought a home in Zaragoza and were able to return to live in the city. Although there are no surviving records, it is thought that Goya may have attended the Escuelas Pías de San Antón, which offered free schooling. His education seems to have been adequate, but not extensive. He picked up a reasonable understanding of reading, writing and numeracy, with some knowledge of the classics. While at school he formed a close and lifelong friendship with fellow pupil Martin Zapater and the 131 letters Goya wrote to him, from 1775 until Zapater’s death in 1801, provide a valuable insight into the artist’s early years at the court in Madrid. Aged fourteen, Goya studied in the artist José Luzán’s workshop, where he copied stamps for four years until he decided to set out on his own. Goya moved to Madrid where he studied with Anton Raphael Mengs, a painter that was popular with Spanish royalty. He clashed with his master and his examinations proved to be unsatisfactory. At this time Goya submitted entries for the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in 1763 and 1766, but was both times refused entrance to the prestigious school. Having failed to earn a scholarship, Goya moved at his own expense to Rome, following in the footsteps of many great artists before him, seeking inspiration from the great masters of the Renaissance and Baroque. Records of Goya’s activities at this time remain few and obscure, with one report claiming that Goya travelled to Rome with a gang of bullfighters, where he worked as a street acrobat, while another describes him toiling for a Russian diplomat, and yet another concerns his falling in love with a beautiful young nun, whom he plots to abduct from her convent. In the early 1770’s Goya studied with the Aragónese artist Francisco Bayeu y Subías, at which time his painting began to show signs of the delicate tonalities for which he would become famous in later years. Becoming good friends with Bayeu, Goya married Bayeu’s sister Josefa on 25 July 1773 and they had their first child, Antonio Juan Ramon Carlos, on 29 August 1774. This marriage and Bayeu’s 1765 membership of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando and directorship of the tapestry works helped Goya earn a commission for a series of tapestry cartoons for the Royal Tapestry Factory. Over five years he designed over forty patterns, many of which were used to decorate and insulate the stone walls of El Escorial and the Palacio Real del Pardo, the residences of the Spanish monarchs. Though designing tapestries was neither prestigious nor well paid, his popularist, rococo style allowed him to foster wider interest in his art, while he was learning to perfect his painterly technique for the greater works to come. The tapestries depicted serene events in everyday life to complement the dining room of Prince and Princess of Asturias, the future King Charles IV and Maria Luisa of Parma. The queen especially called on Goya as she wanted to decorate the dining room with cheerful scenes. The following plate, The Parasol (1777), now housed in the Museo del Prado in Madrid, along with many other tapestry paintings, aptly demonstrates Goya’s response to this request. Illustrating Goya’s penchant for French fashion, rather than Spanish tastes at that time, the canvas portrays a woman sitting on the ground, appearing to rest after a long walk. She is dressed in contemporary French fashion, holding a fan in her right hand, while a little dog is nestled in her lap. A young man holds a parasol to shade her face from the sun’s rays. He is dressed in the majo (peasant) style, his hair gathered in a net and his belt is made of colourful silk. In the background we can see dark clouds in the sky and the trees swaying in the wind, hinting at a storm in the distant future. Nevertheless, the image evokes a sense of calm and idleness, which is only disturbed by the strong breeze blowing against the tree. From 1775 to 1792 Goya painted design cartoons like this for the tapestries, which would form the first genre of his artistic oeuvre. The tapestry cartoons would mark the most developmental period in his artistic career. Goya was influenced by neoclassicism, which was gaining favour over the rococo style at the time. This particular painting is considered classicism for its relation to everyday life. Soon Goya was painting portraits for the Spanish monarchs and aristocrats at court, being elected to the Royal Academy of San Fernando in 1780, then named painter to the king in 1786, followed by court painter in 1789. [image: img13.jpg] [image: img14.jpg] Detail [image: img15.jpg] Detail [image: img16.jpg] Detail [image: img17.jpg] Detail [image: img18.jpg] Francisco Bayeu (1734-1797) [image: img19.jpg] Charles III (1716 — 1788) was the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, but eldest by his second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. [image: img20.jpg] El Escorial, where the tapestries were commissioned to be hung [image: img21.jpg] Another image from the second series of Goya’s tapestries: La merienda a orilla del Manzanares (Lunch on the Banks of the Manzanares) THE BLIND GUITARIST [image: img22.jpg] In the spring of 1778 Goya submitted the following oil cartoon of a blind guitarist to the Royal Tapestry Factory of Santa Barbara in Madrid for it to be woven into a tapestry. Due to the complexity of the design it proved too difficult for the weavers to interpret and alterations had to be made. Goya also completed an etching of the scene, which was the largest he ever completed. The 1778 cartoon, now housed in Madrid’s Museo del Prado, indicates how Goya’s art was beginning to explore darker themes, as seen in the sinister form of the blind guitarist. The image shows a large assembly of well-to-do folk, appearing to be midway through an afternoon stroll, gathered before the musician. His large vacuous eyes and haunting expression render the guitarist an imposing figure in the canvas, as the rest of the figures appear to be drawn towards him. To the top right the clouds are tinged with darkness, hinting at a storm and trouble to come. Even the gentleman in the fine yellow coat feels compelled to give the guitarist a coin and appears to dig deep into his pockets to find one that will be pleasing to the ominous figure. Throughout his career, Goya would produce many controversial and unsettling images, hinting at his own liking for dark subject matter, of which The Blind Guitarist was only a prelude of many more to come. [image: img23.jpg] [image: img24.jpg] Detail [image: img25.jpg] Detail [image: img26.jpg] Detail [image: img27.jpg] Detail [image: img28.jpg] Detail [image: img29.jpg] Detail [image: img30.png] Goya’s etching of the scene, New York Metropolitan Museum of Art THE MEADOW OF SAN ISIDRO [image: img31.jpg] This 1788 composition, yet another treasure housed in the Prado, was one of the sketches for a tapestry cartoon that was never executed, due to the passing of Charles III, who had commissioned the work shortly before his death. The Meadow of San Isidro was among the sketches sold to the Duke of Osuna in 1799. At the time, Goya described it his “most arduous challenge to date.” The canvas concerns a popular festival in the Madrid calendar, still celebrated today on 15 May, the feast day of the city’s patron saint, Isidore the Labourer. It provides a rare example in Goya’s oeuvre of a landscape, depicting the lay of the land from the far side of the Manzanares River with the city’s landmarks on the horizon, while in the foreground the crowds amuse themselves in typical festival activities, with few pilgrims to be seen among the crowd. It is believed that the artist’s viewpoint was from the Hermitage of San Isidro, the eventual destination of the pilgrims on that day. [image: img32.jpg] [image: img33.png] Detail [image: img34.jpg] Detail [image: img35.png] Detail [image: img36.png] Detail [image: img37.jpg] The Museo del Prado, Spain’s main national art museum, located in central Madrid. It features one of the world’s finest collections of European art, dating from the 12th century to the early 19th century, based on the former Spanish Royal Collection, and unquestionably the best single collection of Spanish art, including many of Goya’s famous masterpieces. BLIND MAN’S BUFF [image: img38.jpg] During the late 1780’s, Goya was busily employed on sketches for cartoons of tapestries to decorate the bedroom of the Infantes, located in the Palace of El Pardo, near Madrid. The only completed cartoon from these sketches was Blind Man’s Buff, once again due to the death of Charles III and the subsequent withdrawal of tapestries from El Pardo. In the canvas, Goya reverts to a conventional composition with marionette-like figures represented on the banks of the Manzanares river, dressed in the latest Parisian fashions, while holding hands. The somewhat awkward postures of the figures hint at the young artist not entirely at ease in his current medium. Tapestry art was then considered to be a low occupation and Goya was not earning large amounts of money for his timely endeavours. Nevertheless, painting the tapestries helped Goya to become a keen observer of human behaviour and artistic trends, giving him the confidence to launch a career as an independent artist in his own right. [image: img39.jpg] [image: img40.png] Detail [image: img41.jpg] Detail [image: img42.jpg] Detail [image: img43.jpg] Detail [image: img44.jpg] Royal Palace of El Pardo, near Madrid YARD WITH MADMEN [image: img45.jpg] Completed between 1793 and 1794, the following plate was inspired by scenes that Goya witnessed in asylums he visited in his youth in Zaragoza. The canvas was painted at the same time he suffered from a severe and undiagnosed illness, which resulted in him being left completely deaf for the rest of his life. After 1793, Goya’s work became progressively darker and pessimistic. His later easel and mural paintings, prints and drawings appear to reflect a bleak outlook on personal, social and political levels, in spire of his social climbing. Yard with Madmen was painted around the time when Goya’s deafness and fear of mental illness were developing and he was increasingly complaining of his health. Though during this time he was steadily becoming more preoccupied with wealthy commissions of portraits of royalty and noblemen, the canvas is one of a dozen small-scale, dark images he produced independently. It was one of the first of Goya’s mid-1790’s cabinet paintings, which he painted entirely for himself, abandoning his earlier search for ideal beauty. Instead, he sought to explore the relationship between naturalism and fantasy, which would go on to interest him for the rest of his career. He was undergoing a nervous breakdown and entering prolonged physical illness and these paintings reflect his own self-doubt, fearing that he himself was going mad, like the subjects he was painting. Goya wrote that the painting served “to occupy my imagination, tormented as it is by contemplation of my sufferings.” Yard with Madmen was painted at a time when such institutions were little more than convenient places to dispose of psychotic or misunderstood people, without any attempt to treat the nature of their illness. Goya’s yard is portrayed in a brutally stark manner, with the shackled inmates enclosed by high walls and a heavy stone arch. The madmen fight and grin demonically, huddling in despair, whilst an oppressive grey light presents them in a murky viewpoint. The inhabitants of the asylum are guarded by a single man, who stretches back, ready to beat one of the unfortunate madmen. The work evokes a horrifying vision of loneliness and social alienation, which the artist evidently related to as he came to terms with his disorientating loss of hearing. [image: img46.jpg] [image: img47.jpg] Detail [image: img48.jpg] Detail [image: img49.jpg] Detail [image: img50.jpg] Detail [image: img51.png] Detail THE BLACK DUTCHESS [image: img52.jpg] Goya was appointed court painter to Charles IV in 1789 and the following year he became First Court Painter with a salary of 50,000 reales and an allowance of 500 ducats for a coach. He painted the King and the Queen, royal family pictures, a portrait of the Spanish Prime Minister Manuel de Godoy and many other nobles. His portraits are notable for their refusal to flatter the highly-placed subjects. During this time Goya received commissions from the highest ranks of the Spanish nobility, including Pedro Téllez-Girón, 9th Duke of Osuna and his wife María Josefa Pimentel, 12th Countess-Duchess of Benavente, María del Pilar de Silva, 13th Duchess of Alba (universally known simply as the ‘Duchess of Alba’ and her husband José María Álvarez de Toledo, 15th Duke of Medina Sidonia. The Black Duchess is a famous portrait of the Duchess of Alba, completed in 1797 when the Duchess was thirty-five years old. A prominent figure in Madrid society, she was regarded as a great beauty and admired for her charm and wit. The portrait forms a companion piece to Goya’s more chaste work, The White Duchess, completed two years earlier. De Silva is presented dressed in low cut Maja clothing, depicting her as a “woman of the people”. Now housed at the New York Hispanic Society, the painting was completed a year after the sitter’s husband had died. The duchess points to the ground, where the words “solo Goya” are lightly engraved, hinting at the intimacy shared between the artist and the subject. She wears two rings, one engraved with the word “Alba”, the other engraved with “Goya”. Some art historians have claimed that the artist and the duchess were lovers. The inscription of the word “solo” (only) was initially hidden, but after the painting was restored it was revealed, lending credence to these claims. This work is among a number of portraits Goya painted of the duchess. When she retreated to a residence after her husband’s death for a period of mourning, Goya followed and created numerous paintings and sketches during the stay. Reportedly, one day, the duchess walked into Goya’s studio and requested that he put on the duchess’ makeup. Goya wrote, “Certainly I would rather do that than paint on canvas”. De Silva then told him to paint a portrait of her — The Black Duchess is the resulting canvas. [image: img53.jpg] [image: img54.jpg] Detail [image: img55.jpg] Detail [image: img56.jpg] Detail [image: img57.jpg] Detail [image: img58.jpg] The White Duchess, 1795, Collection of the Duchess of Alba, Madrid WITCHES’ FLIGHT [image: img59.jpg] The Witches’ Flight was completed in 1798 as part of a series of six paintings related to witchcraft. In the centre of the canvas there are three semi-nude witches wearing coroza (a penitential garment that was used during the Spanish Inquisition), who bear aloft a writhing nude figure, their mouths close to their victim, as if to devour him or suck his blood. Below, two figures in peasants’ garb recoil from the spectacle. A man has thrown himself to the ground covering his ears, while the other man attempts to escape by covering himself with a blanket, making the figa hand gesture to ward off the evil eye. A donkey, a traditional symbol of ignorance, emerges on the right, seemingly oblivious to the horror of the scene. Critics have argued that the painting represents a rationalist critique of superstition and ignorance, particularly in religious matters. The witches’ corozas are not only emblematic of the violence of the Spanish Inquisition, as the upward flames indicate that they have been condemned as unrepentant heretics and will be burned at the stake, but are also reminiscent of episcopal mitres. Goya’s criticism of religious tribunals are stridently clear, as he censures actions of superstition and ritualised sacrifice. The bystanders can then be understood either as appalled, yet unable to do anything or wilfully ignorant and unwilling to intervene. The Witch series of canvases were purchased by the Duke and Duchess of Osuna in the same year to decorate their villa La Alameda, on the outskirts of Madrid. Witches’ Flight was later sold in 1896 at the public auction of the Osuna estate to Ramón Ibarra, and again in 1985 to Jaime Ortiz Patiño. Finally, it was acquired by the Prado in 1999, where it is housed today. [image: img60.jpg] [image: img61.jpg] Detail [image: img62.jpg] Detail [image: img63.jpg] Detail [image: img64.jpg] Detail [image: img65.png] Goya’s two portraits of the Duke and Duchess of Osuna, 1785 THE MIRACLE OF ST. ANTHONY [image: img66.jpg] Goya was commissioned in 1798 to paint luminous and airy scenes for the pendentives and cupola of the Real Ermita (Chapel) of San Antonio de la Florida in Madrid. The church of San Antonio, a small neo-classical building on the outskirts of Madrid, was a royal chapel completed in 1798. The only document referring to Goya’s decorations is an extant account of materials, ‘for the work in the chapel of San Antonio de la Florida, which he carried out at His Majesty’s bidding in this year, 1798’. Many of these scenes depict miracles performed by St. Anthony of Padua set in the midst of contemporary Madrid. Behind the painted railing surrounding the cupola, St. Anthony, in the presence of a Lisbon crowd, brings back to life a murdered man in order to establish his father’s innocence of the crime. The decoration of the cupola, apse, lunettes and pendentives, executed in fresco with added touches of tempera, is unprecedented in Goya’s oeuvre for the boldness and individuality of its style. The placing of the principal scene of the miracle on the walls of the cupola, usually occupied by a representation of heaven, is unconventional, as is the decoration of the walls below with female angels and painted curtains. The effect of the composition is similar to secular decoration, rich in colour and experimental and free in its handling of brush work. Many years after his burial in Bordeaux, Goya’s remains were to be exhumed and returned to Spain, where, since 1929 they have been entombed in the same church as the artist’s St. Anthony frescoes. [image: img67.jpg] [image: img68.jpg] Detail [image: img69.png] Detail [image: img70.jpg] Detail [image: img71.jpg] Detail [image: img72.jpg] Detail [image: img73.jpg] The Royal Chapel of St. Anthony of La Florida, central Madrid PORTRAIT OF ANDRÉS DEL PERAL [image: img74.jpg] Housed in London’s National Gallery, this 1798 portrait depicts the doctor of law and financial representative of the Spanish government in Paris at the end of the eighteenth century, Andrés del Peral. The sitter is known to have been a collector and to have owned a number of Goya’s paintings. Peral sits stiffly, his right hand placed inside his shirt, according to the fashion of the time. The facial expression is surprisingly discontent in appearance, the mouth appearing to curl slightly in a look of disdain or contempt. The background is almost totally black, forcing our attention on the imposing figure of Peral. Light floods the canvas centrally, adding to the impact of the sitter’s personal traits. Goya’s friend, Carderera, wrote that in producing the portrait Goya ‘had such care and love for the grand effect of a picture that he usually put the last touches on by night with artificial light, at times taking no account of whether the drawing was more or less accurate’. [image: img75.png] [image: img76.jpg] Detail [image: img77.jpg] Detail [image: img78.jpg] Detail [image: img79.jpg] Detail PORTRAIT OF GASPAR MELCHOR DE JOVELLANOS [image: img80.jpg] The following portrait was produced in the same year as the preceding plate, this time depicting the artist’s friend and patron, Jovellanos (1744-1811), who was a learned writer and liberal statesman. In 1798, when the canvas was completed, Jovellanos had just been appointed as Minister of Grace and Justice. During his political career, the liberal nobleman had fought for reforms and against ignorance, superstition and the Inquisition. The portrait was painted while the court was at Aranjuez. Jovellanos was fifty-four years old when he came to power and was painted by Goya. It is recorded that he took much trouble with his hair, which is carefully dressed in the portrait, as he refused to wear a wig. Goya has positioned his sitter in an ornate setting, once again employing muted lighting. Jovellanos is seated in a melancholy pose, beside an elaborate table with letters and an inkwell. A statue of Minerva, the goddess of wisdom, is presented in large-scale in the top right section of the canvas. Minerva is portrayed in bronze as a compliment to the sitter’s learning and distinguished position at the time of the composition. Jovellanos would shortly become a political prisoner in Mallorca for seven years and the portrait was eventually bequeathed to the statesman’s friend and protector, Arias de Saavedra. [image: img81.jpg] [image: img82.jpg] Detail [image: img83.jpg] Detail [image: img84.jpg] Detail [image: img85.jpg] Detail [image: img86.jpg] Detail THE SLEEP OF REASON PRODUCES MONSTERS [image: img87.jpg] Between 1797 and 1798, Goya laboured intensely to produce Los Caprichos (The Caprices), a set of 80 prints in aquatint and etching, which were published as an album in 1799. The prints were an artistic experiment: a medium for Goya’s condemnation of the universal follies and foolishness in the Spanish society in which he lived. The prints offer diverse, but acidic criticisms of society, often against the predominance of superstition, the ignorance and inabilities of the various members of the ruling class, marital mistakes and the decline of rationality. Goya described the series as depicting “the innumerable foibles and follies to be found in any civilised society, and from the common prejudices and deceitful practices which custom, ignorance or self-interest have made usual”. The artist added brief explanations of each image to a manuscript, now in the Museo del Prado; explaining his often cryptic intentions, as well as printing the titles on each image in the bottom area. The most famous of the prints is The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters — the 43rd etching of the suite of satires. In the print, Goya represents himself asleep amidst his drawing tools, his reason dulled by slumber and haunted by creatures that prowl in the dark. The full epigraph reads; “Fantasy abandoned by reason produces impossible monsters: united with her, she is the mother of the arts and the origin of their marvels.” The image includes owls, serving as symbols of folly, and bats connoting ignorance. The artist’s nightmare echoes his view of Spanish society, which he portrays elsewhere in the series as foolish, corrupt and deserving of ridicule. [image: img88.jpg] [image: img89.jpg] Detail [image: img90.jpg] Detail [image: img91.jpg] Detail [image: img92.jpg] Detail [image: img93.jpg] Capricho 45: Mucho hay que chupar (There is plenty to suck) CHARLES IV AND HIS FAMILY [image: img94.jpg] Goya is recorded as having made four journeys to the Royal Palace at Aranjuez in 1800 to paint ten portraits of the royal family. He began work on his grand painting of Charles IV of Spain and His Family in 1800, finishing the canvas in the summer of 1801. Featuring life-sized depictions of the Spanish king and his family in a naturalistic and plausible setting, dressed in fine costume and jewellery, the group portrait was modelled after Velázquez’ famous Las Meninas, completed just over a hundred years previously. The royal family is presented as having paid a visit to the artist’s studio, while Goya can be seen to the left, just as Velázquez boldly depicted himself in his own portrait of the royal family. As in Las Meninas, Goya is seen to be working on the canvas depicted at that moment, with only the rear being visible. The atmospheric and warm perspective of the palace interior of Velázquez’ work is replaced in Goya’s portrait by a sense of formal grandeur, as the figures stand regarding us, much like actors on a stage facing an audience. The figures are crowded together in front of the wall and there is no attempt to create an illusion of space. The artist’s eyes are directed towards the spectator, as if he were watching the scene in a mirror. The awkward arrangement of the family members suggests that Goya composed the group in his studio from sketches. The artist’s cast of royal figures is dominated by Charles IV and the central figure of his Queen, María Luisa. A reportedly unattractive person, Goya stresses the fineness and elegance of her costume and rich jewels in order to enhance her appearance. This large canvas is the final recorded occasion that Goya painted any member of the Spanish royal family, apart from the future Ferdinand VII, who stands in the foreground on the left side. [image: img95.jpg] [image: img96.jpg] Detail [image: img97.jpg] Detail [image: img98.jpg] Detail [image: img99.jpg] Detail [image: img100.png] Detail [image: img101.jpg] Portrait of Charles IV by Goya, 1789 [image: img102.jpg] ‘Las Meninas’ by Diego Velázquez, the leading artist of the Spanish Golden Age, 1656 [image: img103.jpg] The Royal Palace at Aranjuez, located 42 kilometres south of Madrid THE NUDE MAJA [image: img104.jpg] Completed by 1800, this notorious canvas portrays a nude woman reclining on a bed of pillows, most likely commissioned by Manuel de Godoy to hang in his private collection in a separate cabinet reserved for nude paintings. Goya created an alternative version of the same painting, with the sitter identically posed, yet clothed, known today as La maja vestida (The Clothed Maja), which is displayed today in the Prado alongside La maja desnuda (The Nude Maja). The painting is famous for the confident and unashamed gaze of the model, as she gazes at the viewer, unfazed by her revealing pose. It has also been cited as one of the earliest Western artworks to depict a nude woman’s pubic hair without obvious negative connotations, such as images of prostitutes. The painting makes use of the traditions of depictions of the nude in Spanish art, though it also marks a clear break in significant ways, especially in her brazen gaze. The accompanying pendant showing the same woman in contemporary dress stresses that the focus of the works is not of a mythological subject, as in Velázquez’ Rokeby Venus, but in fact of a contemporary nude Spanish woman. Unlike Velázquez’ Venus, which reveals only her back, Goya’s portrait provides a full frontal view. The woman’s figure is less idealised, being short and angular, while Velázquez’ is elongated and curved, lying on richly coloured satin, starkly contrasting with the bare white fabric that Goya’s sitter lies on. The identity of the model and why the paintings were created remain unknown, but it has been conjectured that the woman was Godoy’s young mistress, Pepita Tudó. Both paintings are first recorded in an inventory of the unpopular Prime Minister Manuel de Godoy, Duke of Alcúdia in 1800, when hung in a private room reserved for nude paintings, including Velázquez’s Rokeby Venus. Godoy retained the picture for six years before it was discovered by investigators of the Spanish Inquisition in 1808, along with his other “questionable pictures”. Godoy and the curator of his collection, Don Francisco de Garivay, were brought before a tribunal and forced to reveal the artists behind the confiscated art works that were deemed as “prejudicial to the public good.” The controversy was driven by a political motive, following a mob gathering demanding Godoy’s removal as Prime Minister. In the fallout, Goya was named and summonsed on a charge of moral depravity. As Godoy had only been found in possession of the painting, Goya was asked to explain why he had created it. Though his answers do not survive, we know that the Director of Confiscations noted that Goya had only followed and emulated Titian’s Danaë series and Velázquez’ Venus — two painters greatly admired by the court and church. Goya escaped prosecution when the tribunal accepted that he was following in a tradition, emulating a Velázquez painting favoured by Philip IV of Spain. By 1808 the Inquisition was nearing the end of its influence and though it strove to draw attention to “dangerous” forms of expression, it was usually unable to fully suppress them. The event would foster in Goya a life-long hatred for the Inquisition. [image: img105.jpg] [image: img106.jpg] Detail [image: img107.jpg] Detail [image: img108.jpg] Detail [image: img109.png] Detail [image: img110.jpg] [image: img111.jpg] Detail [image: img112.jpg] Detail [image: img113.jpg] ‘Manuel de Godoy, Príncipe de la Paz’ by Goya — Godoy was Prime Minister of Spain from 1792 to 1797 and from 1801 to 1808. PORTRAIT OF DOÑA ISABEL DE PORCEL [image: img114.jpg] Isabel Lobo Velasco de Porcel was born at Ronda in c. 1780 and was the second wife of Antonio Porcel. Isabel’s husband was twenty-five years older than her and they had met when she was only twenty years old. He was a liberal and associate of Manuel Godoy, Prince of the Peace, who was a friend of Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, who in turn brought him in contact with Goya, a nearby neighbour. It is believed the following 1805 portrait was a gift from the artist in return for hospitality. Goya had also produced a portrait of Antonio Porcel — much larger and so not a matching piece — which was lost in a fire when the Jockey Club in Buenos Aires was destroyed in a riot in 1953. Isabel de Porcel is portrayed in typical Spanish attire of a white shirt and a black mantilla. In spite of the humbleness of the maja costume, the richness of the materials and her elegant appearance give the painting an aristocratic air. During this time wealthy Spanish patrons often wore the styles of lower class urban dandies and their female equivalents. X-rays have revealed that the portrait was painted over another painting of a figure in a blue outfit, which hue can now be spotted coming through the pale face of Isabel de Porcel, producing a porcelain effect in the sitter’s skin. A unique aspect of this painting is that the sitter is looking towards the left side of the viewer and not towards us, unlike in the majority of Goya’s paintings. The decisive posture of her arms and her confident bearing suggest an assured person, undisturbed by our scrutiny. [image: img115.jpg] [image: img116.jpg] Detail [image: img117.jpg] Detail [image: img118.jpg] Detail [image: img119.png] Detail PORTRAIT OF ANTONIA ZÁRATE [image: img120.jpg] Doña Antonia Zárate was a famous actress and the daughter of Pedro de Zárate Valdés, also an actor. She married the singer Bernardo Gil y Aguado and their son Antonio Gil y Zárate was to become a renowned poet and playwright. Goya’s 1806 portrait of Zárate displays her in a traditional Spanish black dress and lace mantilla, providing a strong contrast with the yellow sofa on which she sits. The same sofa appears in other Goya portraits of the time and was most likely a studio piece. In her hand, Zárate holds a fleco fan and her arms are covered with fine white, fingerless gloves. Aged thirty at the time of the portrait, Goya portrays Zárate’s expression as melancholic, though a hint of irony is suggested by a faint smile. The portrait is one of the many female depictions Goya completed before the Peninsula War. The artist held a high regard for the theatre and over his career he painted the portraits of many of the leading stars of the stage. [image: img121.jpg] [image: img122.png] Detail [image: img123.png] Detail [image: img124.png] Detail THE BURIAL OF THE SARDINE [image: img125.jpg] The Burial of the Sardine entered Madrid’s Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in 1839 at the bequest of Manuel Garcia de la Prada, a great patron of the artist. The title for this unusual canvas is posthumous, referring to the culminating event of a three-day carnival in Madrid, ending on Ash Wednesday. Masked and disguised revellers are seen dancing their way to the banks of the Manzanares, where a ceremonial sardine will be buried. Goya does not illustrate the fish in the painting, nor the large doll made of straw called a pelele, from which it was hung. Instead, the centrepiece of the painting is the darkly grinning ‘King of the Carnival’. Dated between 1793 and 1819, the painting reveals the exuberant crowd carousing on the first day of Lent, while other Spanish Catholics worship at church. Yet, the celebration takes a sinister aspect due to the many masked and blank faces surrounding the dancing women in white. Further gloom is evoked from the grey, distorted trees and the encroaching dark colours, including the prominent black banner that portrays a disturbing face. Broad sketchy brushstrokes and the variety of dramatic poses by the figures add a charged energy to the scene. Festivals such as the ‘Burial of the Sardine’ originated from themes of mortality, where masks were worn to ward off the spirits of criminals and those who had died violently. The word ‘mortus’ (death) is visible on the banner. The painting forms a loose thematic set with other paintings of religious ceremony that Goya produced around the same time, including A Procession of Flagellants and Inquisition Scene. Goya’s canvas hints a satirical remark on the superstitious regard that many people still held for such medieval rituals. [image: img126.jpg] [image: img127.png] Detail [image: img128.png] Detail [image: img129.png] Detail [image: img130.png] Detail [image: img131.jpg] Goya’s preparatory sketch for the oil painting [image: img132.jpg] ‘A Procession of Flagellants’, c. 1812-1819 PORTRAIT OF THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON [image: img133.jpg] This portrait of the Duke of Wellington, the celebrated British general Arthur Wellesley, was completed during his service in the Peninsular War. One of three portraits Goya painted of the general, it was completed in 1812 and later modified in 1814 to show Wellington in full dress black uniform with gold braid, adding the Order of the Golden Fleece and Military Gold Cross with three clasps, both of which he had been awarded after the painting was originally commissioned. Wellington is the only Englishman to have his portrait painted by Goya. Having been victorious at the Battle of Salamanca, the general had gone on to liberate Madrid from the French, entering the city in August 1812, at which time he sat for Goya. Aged forty-three at the time of the portrait, his hair greying at the temples, Wellington looks out at us from above his medals, with an alert and good-humoured expression. Goya would give his sitters an animated appearance by portraying them with their mouths slightly open, as seen previously in the Queen of Spain, María Luisa, in the famous group portrait of 1800. Wellington’s short upper lip is drawn up over two large front teeth. By this time Goya was completely deaf as a result of his illness in 1792, so Wellington would not have been speaking to the artist as he worked on the canvas. Now Goya could only communicate by sign language and his handwriting. The painting belonged to the 11th Duke of Leeds and was auctioned in 1961, when the New York collector Charles Wrightsman, a wealthy American that made his money in the oil business, keenly bid £140,000 for the portrait. The Wolfson Foundation offered £100,000 and the government added a special Treasury grant of £40,000, matching Wrightsman’s bid and obtaining the painting for the National Gallery in London, where it was first put on display on 2 August 1961. It was stolen nineteen days later, but later returned by Kempton Bunton, a retired bus driver with learning difficulties, who confessed to the crime in July 1965. [image: img134.jpg] [image: img135.jpg] Detail [image: img136.jpg] Detail [image: img137.jpg] Detail [image: img138.png] Detail [image: img139.jpg] Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington by Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1815-16 THE THIRD OF MAY, 1808: THE EXECUTION OF THE DEFENDERS OF MADRID [image: img140.jpg] Widely regarded as Goy’s masterpiece, this 1814 image boldly commemorates the Spanish resistance to Napoleon’s armies during the occupation of 1808 in the Peninsular War. Along with its companion piece of the same size, The Second of May 1808, the canvas was commissioned by the provisional government of Spain at Goya’s suggestion. Though it draws on many sources from both high and popular art, The Third of May 1808 marks a clear break from convention and traditional depictions of war. The painting would go on to inspire a number of other major artworks, including a series by Édouard Manet and Pablo Picasso’s Massacre in Korea and Guernica. On 18 February 1799, Napoleon had declared himself First Consul of the French Republic, whilst in 1804 he went so far as to crown himself Emperor. As Spain controlled access to the Mediterranean, the country was strategically important to French interests. The Spanish king, Charles IV, was widely regarded as ineffectual. Napoleon took advantage of the situation by suggesting the two nations conquer and divide Portugal, with France and Spain each taking a third of the spoils, and the final third going to the Spanish Prime Minister, Manuel de Godoy, along with the title Prince of the Algarve. Godoy was convinced and accepted the French offer. He failed, however, to grasp Napoleon’s true intentions, and was unaware that his new ally and co-sovereign, the former king’s son Ferdinand VII of Spain, was using the invasion merely as a ploy to seize the Spanish parliament and throne. Under the guise of reinforcing the Spanish armies, 23,000 French troops entered Spain unopposed in November 1807. Even when Napoleon’s intentions became clear the following February, the occupying forces found little resistance apart from isolated actions in disconnected areas. Napoleon’s principal commander, Marshal Joachim Murat, believed that Spain would benefit from rulers more progressive and competent than the Bourbons and so Napoleon’s brother, Joseph Bonaparte, was to be made king. After Napoleon convinced Ferdinand to return Spanish rule to Charles IV, the latter was left with no choice but to abdicate, on 19 March 1808, in favour of Joseph Bonaparte. Although the Spanish people had accepted foreign monarchs in the past, they deeply resented the new French ruler. On 2 May 1808, provoked by news of the planned removal to France of the last members of the Spanish royal family, the people of Madrid rebelled in the Dos de Mayo Uprising. A proclamation issued that day to his troops by Marshal Murat read: “The population of Madrid, led astray, has given itself to revolt and murder. French blood has flowed. It demands vengeance. All those arrested in the uprising, arms in hand, will be shot.” Goya commemorates the uprising in The Second of May, 1808, depicting a cavalry charge against the rebels in the Puerta del Sol square in Madrid, the site of several hours of fierce combat. The Third of May, 1808 illustrates the French reprisal, when before dawn the following day hundreds of Spaniards were rounded up and shot in several locations around Madrid. Civilian Spanish opposition would continue throughout the ensuing five-year Peninsular War, the first to be called a guerrilla war. Irregular Spanish forces considerably aided the Spanish, Portuguese and British armies jointly led by Sir Arthur Wellesley, who first landed in Portugal in August 1808. By the time of the painting’s conception, the public imagination had pronounced the rioters symbols of heroism and patriotism. Goya was placed in a difficult position by the French invasion, as he had supported the initial aims of the French Revolution, hoping for a similar development in Spain. Several of his friends, including the poets Juan Meléndez Valdés and Leandro Fernández de Moratín, were overt supporters of Joseph Bonaparte. Goya’s 1798 portrait of the French ambassador-turned-commandant Ferdinand Guillemardet suggests the artist’s personal admiration of the statesman. Although he maintained his position as court painter, swearing an oath of loyalty to Joseph Napoleon, Goya had by nature an instinctive dislike of authority, having witnessed the subjugation of his countrymen by the French troops. During these years he painted few works, although the experiences of the occupation provided inspiration for drawings that would form the basis of his celebrated, yet horrifying prints The Disasters of War. In February 1814, after the final expulsion of the French, Goya approached the provisional government with a request to “perpetuate by means of his brush the most notable and heroic actions of our glorious insurrection against the Tyrant of Europe”. His proposal was accepted and he began work on The Third of May, 1808. It is not known whether he had personally witnessed either the rebellion or the reprisals, in spite of later attempts to place him at the events of either day. The image depicts a scene in the early hours of the morning following the uprising, concentrating on two groups of men: one a rigidly poised firing squad, the other a disorganised group of captives held at gun point. Executioners and victims face each other across a narrow space, the orderly line of the rifles contrasting with the irregular order of the Spanish victims. A square lantern situated on the ground between the two groups throws dramatic light upon the scene. The brightest illumination falls on the huddled victims to the left, who include a holy figure in prayer. To the immediate right and at the centre of the canvas, other condemned figures stand next in line to be shot. The most prominent figure is a brightly lit man, kneeling among the bloodied corpses of his fellows, his arms held widely out, either in appeal or defiance. His yellow and white clothing echoes the colours of the lantern, while his plain white shirt and sun-burnt face reveal his labourer social status. The firing squad on the right, cast in shadow, are represented as a single unit. Their bayonets and shako headgear form a relentless and solid column. The majority of their faces cannot be seen, adding to the sinister impression. A townscape with a steeple looms in the nocturnal distance, indicating the French barracks, while in the background, an indistinguishable crowd watches, hovering on the fringes and extending the sense of fear. On its first unveiling, the canvas received mixed reactions from critics and historians. Artists had previously tended to present war in the high style of history painting and Goya’s ‘unheroic’ depiction was unusual for the time. Some believed the painting was flawed technically, the perspective judged as flat, or the victims and executioners standing too close together to be realistic. The Third of May, 1808, however, exudes power through its blunt adherence to traditional compositional devices. The unmitigated brutality and incredible drama of the image certainly make up for any lack in pictorial device. [image: img141.jpg] [image: img142.jpg] Detail [image: img143.jpg] Detail [image: img144.png] Detail [image: img145.png] Detail [image: img146.png] Detail [image: img147.jpg] Detail of the victim’s right hand which shows a stigma — a wound such as Christ suffered when nailed to the cross [image: img148.jpg] ‘The Second of May 1808’ was completed in 1814, two months before its companion work ‘The Third of May 1808’. It depicts the uprising that precipitated the executions of the third of May. [image: img149.jpg] ‘Massacre in Korea’ by Pablo Picasso, 1951—inspired by Goya’s masterpiece ‘The Third of May 1808’ SELF-PORTRAIT WITH DR. ARRIETA [image: img150.jpg] In 1792 Goya developed a sudden serious illness, suffering giddiness, weakness, delirium, abdominal pain, deafness and partial blindness. Various diagnoses of the illness have been offered, including syphilis, lead poisoning, cerebrovascular disease and acute infection of the central nervous system. Twenty-seven years later, Goya suffered a second serious illness. Scant information survives regarding the nature of the illness or on the attending Dr. Arrieta’s treatment. In return for what he considered his life-saving care, Goya produced the following unusual self-portrait as a present for Arrieta. It is uncertain how long the painting remained in Arrieta’s possession. In 1820 he travelled to Africa to research bubonic plague and it is probable that the painting remained in Spain. By 1860, when exhibited in Madrid, it had entered the collection of Mr. Martinez of Madrid. Later the painting was recorded in various private collections in Paris, before being acquired by the Minneapolis Institute of Art. The painting is the main source of information on Goya’s second serious illness and an inscription at the bottom of the canvas explains why he produced the image: “Goya, in gratitude to his friend Arrieta: for the compassion and care with which he saved his life during the acute and dangerous illness he suffered towards the end of the year 1819 in his seventy-third year. He painted it in 1820”. In the picture, Goya is seated on his bed, clearly weak from the illness. He grasps his bed sheet as if clinging on to life, while being supported from falling back by the arm of Arrieta. The doctor appears to encourage his patient to take the medicine. Shadowy figures, most likely attending servants and a priest, hover in the background, adding to the impression of fear. Goya most likely expected to die from this illness, but under Arrieta’s care, he was nursed back to health and would go on to live for a further eight years. The self-portrait exists now as an image of enduring hope in the face of despair — the colours of the coverlet and skin tones being more delicate and lighter than in other, much darker works by Goya at this time. [image: img151.jpg] [image: img152.jpg] Detail [image: img153.jpg] Detail [image: img154.jpg] Detail [image: img155.jpg] Detail [image: img156.jpg] Detail SATURN DEVOURING ONE OF HIS CHILDREN [image: img157.jpg] Goya purchased a house on the banks of Manzanares near Madrid, called Quinta del Sordo (Villa of the Deaf Man), in 1819. It was a two-storey building, named after a previous occupant, who had also been deaf. Up until 1823, when he left the house to move to Bordeaux, Goya produced a series of fourteen works that he painted with oils directly on to the walls of the house. At the age of seventy-three and having survived two life-threatening illnesses, Goya was likely to have been concerned with his own mortality at the time, having become increasingly embittered by the civil strife in Spain. Although he initially decorated the rooms of the house with more inspiring images, in time he overpainted them all with the intense haunting pictures known today as the Black Paintings. Commissioned by no patron and never intended for public display, these pictures reflect his darkening mood through intense scenes of malevolence and conflict. The following plate concerns the Greek myth of the Titan Cronus (the Roman Saturn), eating one of his children immediately upon their birth, lest he will be usurped in his position as king of the gods. According to myth, it had been foretold that one of the sons of Saturn would overthrow him, just as he had overthrown his father, Caelus. Saturn Devouring One of His Children is one of the fourteen Black Paintings that Goya painted on the walls of his house. Goya depicts Saturn as a misshapen and frightening giant, feasting upon one of his sons. The child’s head and part of the left arm have already been consumed, leaving a grim trail of blood. The Titan is on the point of taking another bite from the left arm and, as he looms from the darkness, his mouth gapes and his eyes bulge. The child’s flesh shines brightly, along with the red blood and Saturn’s knuckles, as he digs his fingers into the back of the corpse. Not only is the god depicted as committing cannibalism on his own child, but he seems to enjoy the meat he is eating. Various interpretations of the image have been offered over the years, including the conflict between youth and old age, time as the devourer of all things, the wrath of God and an allegory of the political situation of Spain, where the country consumed its own children in wars and revolution. There have also been explanations concerning Goya’s relationship with his own son, Xavier, the only one of his six children to survive adulthood. Although the Black Paintings were not meant to be seen by the public, they remain important works in Goya’s oeuvre. When the artist went into self-imposed exile in France in 1823, he passed Quinta del Sordo to his grandson, Mariano. After various changes of ownership, the house came into the possession of the Belgian Baron Emile d’Erlanger in 1874. After 70 years on the walls of Quinta del Sordo, the murals were deteriorating badly and, in order to preserve them, the new owner of the house had them transferred to canvas under the direction of Salvador Martinez Cubells, the chief art restorer at the Museo del Prado. After showing them at the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris, d’Erlanger eventually donated them to the Spanish state. The effects of time on the murals, as well as the inevitable damage caused by the mounting of crumbling plaster on canvas, meant that most of the murals required restoration work and some detail may have been lost. Yet, Saturn Devouring One of His Children appears to have fared better than some of the other works and is housed today in Madrid’s Prado Gallery. [image: img158.jpg] [image: img159.jpg] Detail [image: img160.jpg] Detail [image: img161.jpg] Detail [image: img162.png] ‘Saturn Devouring His Son’ by Sir Peter Paul Rubens, 1636 THE MILKMAID OF BORDEAUX [image: img163.jpg] In 1824, amid the civil strife in Spain and still fearing censure over his involvement with the now deposed French establishment, Goya petitioned the king for permission to visit France for reasons of health, in effect going into exile. The king granted his petition and the artist set off for Bordeaux. He was accompanied by his maid Leocadia Weiss, thirty-five years younger than him and a distant relative, who had lived with and cared for Goya after his wife’s death. Leocadia had also lived with the artist in his Quinta del Sordo villa, as well as with her daughter Rosario. Leocadia was probably similar in features to Goya’s first wife Josefa Bayeu, to the point that one of his well known portraits bears the cautious title of Josefa Bayeu (or Leocadia Weiss). Little is known about her, save for her fiery temperament. She was likely related to the Goicoechea family, a wealthy dynasty into which the artist’s son, the feckless Javier, had married. It is believed she held liberal political views and was unafraid of expressing them, a fact met with disapproval by Goya’s family. Leocadia had continued to care for him in Bordeaux, where he settled to live among politically liberal friends. The Milkmaid of Bordeaux is Goya’s last major artwork, completed between 1825–27, and is generally believed to be a portrait of either Leocadia Weiss or her daughter Rosario. A far cry from the dark and horrific images of the Black Paintings, the portrait recalls Goya’s earliest works of tapestry cartoons, perhaps signifying a happier time for the artist in France than his time in the Quinta del Sordo villa. The light canvas presents us with an attractive, doughy eyed maiden, while the milk pail (inscribed with Goya’s name) to the left of the image confirms her status as a milkmaid. The loose, free brushstrokes and hazy representation of the maid, blending with her melancholic and thoughtful gaze to the left, anticipate the Impressionistic style to be seen later in France in that century. Goya greatly valued the canvas, telling his companion Leocadia not to let it go for any less than an ounce of gold. A year after the artist’s death, Leocadia was forced to sell the painting to Juan Bautista de Muguiro, a distant relative, in the face of mounting debts. Muguiro’s descendants donated it to the Museo del Prado in 1946, where it remains a popular exhibit, in spite of some doubts regarding its origin and authenticity. In 1828, a year after completing the portrait, Goya died at the age of eighty-two in Bordeaux. In 1901 his remains was exhumed and returned to Spain to be placed in Madrid’s San Antonio de La Florida, where the artist had decorated the church with his St. Anthony frescoes a century earlier. [image: img164.jpg] [image: img165.jpg] Detail [image: img166.jpg] Detail [image: img167.jpg] Detail [image: img168.jpg] Detail [image: img169.jpg] ‘Leocadia’, Museo del Prado, Madrid, c. 1823 — Goya’s maid, companion and likely lover The Paintings [image: img170.jpg] Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando, Palace of Goyeneche, Madrid — Goya submitted entries for the academy in 1763 and 1766, but was denied entrance. THE COMPLETE PAINTINGS [image: img171.jpg] Goya’s paintings are presented in chronological order and divided into various sections, with an alphabetical table of contents following immediately after. CONTENTS Early Works Triple Generation The Sacrifice to Vesta The Sacrifice to Priapus Hannibal the Conqueror Contemplates Italy from the Alps Birth of the Virgin The Adoration of the Name of the Lord The Burial of Christ Apparition of the Virgin to San Isidro Self Portrait Circumcision Tapestry Cartoons — First Series (1775) La caza del jabalí Perros y útiles de caza Caza con reclamo Partida de caza Cazador cargando su escopeta El cazador con sus perros El pescador de caña Tapestry Cartoons — Second Series (1776–1778) La merienda a orillas del Manzanares El baile de San Antonio de la Florida El bebedor El quitasol (The Parasol) La maja y los embozados La riña en la Venta Nueva Jugadores de naipes La cometa Muchachos cogiendo fruta Niños inflando una vejiga Tapestry Cartoons — Third Series (1778–1779) El ciego de la guitarra El cacharrero La acerolera La feria de Madrid El militar y la señora Muchachos jugando a soldados El niño del árbol El muchacho del pájaro El majo de la guitarra Tapestry Cartoons — Fourth Series (1779–1780) El columpio El juego de la pelota a pala El médico El balancín Niños del carretón La cita El resguardo de tabacos Las lavanderas Los leñadores La novillada Tapestry Cartoons — Fifth Series (1786–1787) Niños con mastines Niño montando un carnero Las floreras La nevada El albañil herido Los pobres en la fuente Riña de gatos La vendimia La marica en un árbol La era Cazador junto a una fuente Pastor tocando la dulzaina Tapestry Cartoons — Sixth Series (1787–1788) La pradera de San Isidro La ermita de San Isidro el día de la fiesta La gallina ciega (Blind man’s bluff) Merienda campestre Gato acosado Tapestry Cartoons — Seventh Series (1791–1792) Mujeres conversando Las gigantillas Los zancos La boda Las mozas del cántaro Muchachos trepando a un árbol El pelele Tapestry Sketches Niños jugando a soldados El ciego de la guitarra Las lavanderas La primavera La trilla The Grape Harvest El invierno El albañil borracho Mujer y dos niños junto a una fuente La gallina ciega Mozas del cántaro El pelele 1780’s Crucified Christ The Holy Family Portrait of Maria Teresa de Vallabriga on horseback Portait of Maria Teresa de Borbón y Vallabriga Self Portrait St. Bernardino of Siena preaching to Alfonso V of Aragon The Count of Floridablanca The Family of the Infante Don Luis Don Pedro, Duke of Osuna The Esquilache Riots The School Scene Woman with a Fan Duchess Countess of Benavente The Annunciation The Annunciation Wife of Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez Marquesa Mariana de Pontejos Boys with Mastiff Don Manuel Osorio Manrique de Zuniga Highwaymen Attacking a Coach Sketch for ‘The Death of Saint Joseph’ The Fall or The Accident The Greasy Pole Village Procession Charles III Equestrian portrait of Maria Luisa of Parma Francisco de Cabarrus The Arrest of Christ The Duke of Osuna and his Family María Luisa of Parma wearing panniers Portrait of Charles IV of Spain Witches Sabbath 1790’s The ill matched Couple Sebastian Martinez Attack on a Coach Dona Tadea Arias de Enriquez Picador Caught by the Bull Portrait of the Countess of Carpio, Marquesa de la Solana Procession of Flagellants The Strolling Players Fire at Night Robbery The Shipwreck The Yard of a Madhouse Duchess of Alba, The White Duchess Duke of Alba Francisco Bayeu Self portrait Self-portrait in the Studio St. Francis Borgia Helping a Dying Impenitent The Duchess of Alba and Her Duenna Incantation Juan Antonio Melendez Valdes Martín Zapater St. Gregory the Great The Duchess of Alba Pedro Romero Asensio Juliá Don Andres del Peral Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos Portrait of Ferdinand Guillemardet The Arrest of Christ The Miracle of St. Anthony Witches in the Air King Carlos IV in Hunting Costume La Tirana Portrait of Leandro Fernandez de Moratin Queen María Luisa Wearing a Mantilla Saint Ambrose Saint Gregory 1800’s Mariana Waldstein, Ninth Marquesa de Santa Cruz The Count of Tajo Sleep Brigand Murdering a Woman Cardinal Luis Maria de Borbon y Vallabriga Brigand Stripping a Woman Brother Juan Fernandez de Rojas Cardinal Luis Maria de Borbon y Vallabriga Charles IV of Spain and his family Nude Maja The Clothed Maja Plague Hospital Portrait of the Countess of Chincon Sketch for Truth Rescued by Time, Witnessed by History Vagabonds Resting in a Cave Manuel Godoy, Duke of Alcudia, ‘Prince of Peace’ Portrait of Carlos IV with a Horse Self Portrait with Spectacles Portrait of Don José Queralto Count Fernand Nunez VII Allegory of Industry Dona María Tomasa Palafox, The Marquesa de Villafranca Painting her Husband The Bookseller’s Wife Portrait of Marqués de San Adrián Portrait of Antonia Zárate Portrait of Pedro Mocarte, a Singer of the Cathedral of Toledo Dona Teresa Sureda Portrait of the Joaquina, nee Tellez Giron y Alfonso Pimental Portrait of Senora Berm sezne Kepmesa Bartholomew Suerda Dona Isabel de Porcel Portrait of José Antonio, Marqués de Caballero Portrait of the Artist Julio Asensio Portrait of Isidoro Máiquez Francisca Sabasa y Garcia 1810’s Majas on a Balcony Portrait of Victor Guye Portrait of the Bullfighter Pedro Romero Allegory of the City of Madrid Dona Narcisa Baranana de Goicoechea Actress Antonia Zarate Dead Birds Dead Turkey Juan Antonio Llorente Knife Grinder Maja and Celestina on a Balcony Maunel Silvela Scene of Rape and Murder Still life of Sheep’s Ribs and Head - The Butcher’s conter Still Life Three Salmon Steaks Still life, plucked turkey and pan with fish The Colossus Water Carrier Pepito Costa and Bonells Portrait of Juan Martin Diaz A Prison Scene A Village Bullfight The Second of May, 1808: The Charge of the Mamelukes The Third of May 1808 (Execution of the Defenders of Madrid) Ferdinand VII Fernando VII General Jose de Palafox Portrait of Ferdinand VII Portrait of Mariano Goya Portrait of Josepha Bayeu or Leocadia Weiss Powder Factory in the Sierra The Burial of the Sardine The Duke of Wellington The Duke of Wellington The Madhouse Prison Scene Truth Rescued by Time, Witnessed by History Duke of San Carlos Self Portrait Self Portrait The Junta of the Philippines Portrait of Don Francisco de Borja Tellez Giron Scene of a Bullfight Queen Maria Luisa Bullfight The Forge Christ on the Mount of Olives Don Juan Antonio Cuervo El Lazarillo de Tormes Inquisition Scene The Last Communion of St. Joseph Calasanz Young Woman with a Letter 1820’s Goya Attended by Doctor Arrieta Portrait of Maria Teresa of Ballabriga, Countess of Chinchon Time of the Old Women Tio Paquete The Great He-Goat Or Witches Sabbath Tubercio Pérez Cuervo Infante Don Sebastián Gabriel de Borbón y Braganza Asmodea The Dog The Fates Don Ramon Satue Fight with Cudgels Judith and Holovernes Leocadia Heads in a Landscape Men Reading Two Old Men Eating Soup Promenade of the Holy Office Saturn Devouring His Son The Pilgrimage of San Isidro Two Old Men Bildzyklus Young People Laughing Portrait of the Poet Moratín The Repentant Saint Peter Still life with fruit, bottles, breads Jose Pio de Molina Mariano Goya Juan Bautista de Muguiro The Milkmaid of Bordeaux ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PAINTINGS [image: img171.jpg] CONTENTS A Prison Scene A Village Bullfight Actress Antonia Zarate Allegory of Industry Allegory of the City of Madrid Apparition of the Virgin to San Isidro Asensio Juliá Asmodea Attack on a Coach Bartholomew Suerda Bildzyklus Birth of the Virgin Boys with Mastiff Brigand Murdering a Woman Brigand Stripping a Woman Brother Juan Fernandez de Rojas Bullfight Cardinal Luis Maria de Borbon y Vallabriga Cardinal Luis Maria de Borbon y Vallabriga Caza con reclamo Cazador cargando su escopeta Cazador junto a una fuente Charles III Charles IV of Spain and his family Christ on the Mount of Olives Circumcision Count Fernand Nunez VII Crucified Christ Dead Birds Dead Turkey Don Andres del Peral Don Juan Antonio Cuervo Don Manuel Osorio Manrique de Zuniga Don Pedro, Duke of Osuna Don Ramon Satue Dona Isabel de Porcel Dona María Tomasa Palafox, The Marquesa de Villafranca Painting her Husband Dona Narcisa Baranana de Goicoechea Dona Tadea Arias de Enriquez Dona Teresa Sureda Duchess Countess of Benavente Duchess of Alba, The White Duchess Duke of Alba Duke of San Carlos El albañil borracho El albañil herido El baile de San Antonio de la Florida El balancín El bebedor El cacharrero El cazador con sus perros El ciego de la guitarra El ciego de la guitarra El columpio El invierno El juego de la pelota a pala El Lazarillo de Tormes El majo de la guitarra El médico El militar y la señora El muchacho del pájaro El niño del árbol El pelele El pelele El pescador de caña El quitasol (The Parasol) El resguardo de tabacos Equestrian portrait of Maria Luisa of Parma Ferdinand VII Fernando VII Fight with Cudgels Fire at Night Francisca Sabasa y Garcia Francisco Bayeu Francisco de Cabarrus Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos Gato acosado General Jose de Palafox Goya Attended by Doctor Arrieta Hannibal the Conqueror Contemplates Italy from the Alps Heads in a Landscape Highwaymen Attacking a Coach Incantation Infante Don Sebastián Gabriel de Borbón y Braganza Inquisition Scene Jose Pio de Molina Juan Antonio Llorente Juan Antonio Melendez Valdes Juan Bautista de Muguiro Judith and Holovernes Jugadores de naipes King Carlos IV in Hunting Costume Knife Grinder La acerolera La boda La caza del jabalí La cita La cometa La era La ermita de San Isidro el día de la fiesta La feria de Madrid La gallina ciega La gallina ciega (Blind man’s bluff) La maja y los embozados La marica en un árbol La merienda a orillas del Manzanares La nevada La novillada La pradera de San Isidro La primavera La riña en la Venta Nueva La Tirana La trilla La vendimia Las floreras Las gigantillas Las lavanderas Las lavanderas Las mozas del cántaro Leocadia Los leñadores Los pobres en la fuente Los zancos Maja and Celestina on a Balcony Majas on a Balcony Manuel Godoy, Duke of Alcudia, ‘Prince of Peace’ María Luisa of Parma wearing panniers Mariana Waldstein, Ninth Marquesa de Santa Cruz Mariano Goya Marquesa Mariana de Pontejos Martín Zapater Maunel Silvela Men Reading Merienda campestre Mozas del cántaro Muchachos cogiendo fruta Muchachos jugando a soldados Muchachos trepando a un árbol Mujer y dos niños junto a una fuente Mujeres conversando Niño montando un carnero Niños con mastines Niños del carretón Niños inflando una vejiga Niños jugando a soldados Nude Maja Partida de caza Pastor tocando la dulzaina Pedro Romero Pepito Costa and Bonells Perros y útiles de caza Picador Caught by the Bull Plague Hospital Portait of Maria Teresa de Borbón y Vallabriga Portrait of Antonia Zárate Portrait of Carlos IV with a Horse Portrait of Charles IV of Spain Portrait of Don Francisco de Borja Tellez Giron Portrait of Don José Queralto Portrait of Ferdinand Guillemardet Portrait of Ferdinand VII Portrait of Isidoro Máiquez Portrait of José Antonio, Marqués de Caballero Portrait of Josepha Bayeu or Leocadia Weiss Portrait of Juan Martin Diaz Portrait of Leandro Fernandez de Moratin Portrait of Maria Teresa de Vallabriga on horseback Portrait of Maria Teresa of Ballabriga, Countess of Chinchon Portrait of Mariano Goya Portrait of Marqués de San Adrián Portrait of Pedro Mocarte, a Singer of the Cathedral of Toledo Portrait of Senora Berm sezne Kepmesa Portrait of the Artist Julio Asensio Portrait of the Bullfighter Pedro Romero Portrait of the Countess of Carpio, Marquesa de la Solana Portrait of the Countess of Chincon Portrait of the Joaquina, nee Tellez Giron y Alfonso Pimental Portrait of the Poet Moratín Portrait of Victor Guye Powder Factory in the Sierra Prison Scene Procession of Flagellants Promenade of the Holy Office Queen Maria Luisa Queen María Luisa Wearing a Mantilla Riña de gatos Robbery Saint Ambrose Saint Gregory Saturn Devouring His Son Scene of a Bullfight Scene of Rape and Murder Sebastian Martinez Self Portrait Self Portrait Self portrait Self Portrait Self Portrait Self Portrait with Spectacles Self-portrait in the Studio Sketch for ‘The Death of Saint Joseph’ Sketch for Truth Rescued by Time, Witnessed by History Sleep St. Bernardino of Siena preaching to Alfonso V of Aragon St. Francis Borgia Helping a Dying Impenitent St. Gregory the Great Still life of Sheep’s Ribs and Head - The Butcher’s conter Still Life Three Salmon Steaks Still life with fruit, bottles, breads Still life, plucked turkey and pan with fish The Adoration of the Name of the Lord The Annunciation The Annunciation The Arrest of Christ The Arrest of Christ The Bookseller’s Wife The Burial of Christ The Burial of the Sardine The Clothed Maja The Colossus The Count of Floridablanca The Count of Tajo The Dog The Duchess of Alba The Duchess of Alba and Her Duenna The Duke of Osuna and his Family The Duke of Wellington The Duke of Wellington The Esquilache Riots The Fall or The Accident The Family of the Infante Don Luis The Fates The Forge The Grape Harvest The Greasy Pole The Great He-Goat Or Witches Sabbath The Holy Family The ill matched Couple The Junta of the Philippines The Last Communion of St. Joseph Calasanz The Madhouse The Milkmaid of Bordeaux The Miracle of St. Anthony The Pilgrimage of San Isidro The Repentant Saint Peter The Sacrifice to Priapus The Sacrifice to Vesta The School Scene The Second of May, 1808: The Charge of the Mamelukes The Shipwreck The Strolling Players The Third of May 1808 (Execution of the Defenders of Madrid) The Yard of a Madhouse Time of the Old Women Tio Paquete Triple Generation Truth Rescued by Time, Witnessed by History Tubercio Pérez Cuervo Two Old Men Two Old Men Eating Soup Vagabonds Resting in a Cave Village Procession Water Carrier Wife of Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez Witches in the Air Witches Sabbath Woman with a Fan Young People Laughing Young Woman with a Letter Early Works [image: img172.jpg] Triple Generation 1769 [image: img173.jpg] The Sacrifice to Vesta Oil on canvas c. 1771 [image: img174.jpg] The Sacrifice to Priapus 1771 Oil on canvas 33 x 24 cm Private Collection [image: img175.jpg] Hannibal the Conqueror Contemplates Italy from the Alps 1771 Oil on canvas [image: img176.jpg] Birth of the Virgin 1772 Fresco Charterhouse of the Aula Dei, Saragossa, Spain [image: img177.jpg] The Adoration of the Name of the Lord 1772 Fresco Cathedral of El Pilar, Saragossa, Spain [image: img178.jpg] The Burial of Christ 1772 Oil on canvas 130 x 95 cm Fundacion Lazaro Galdiano, Spain [image: img179.jpg] Apparition of the Virgin to San Isidro c.1775 Oil on canvas Private Collection [image: img180.jpg] Self Portrait c.1775 Oil on panel 58 x 44 cm Private Collection [image: img181.jpg] Circumcision c. 1778 Oil on canvas [image: img182.jpg] Tapestry Cartoons — First Series (1775) La caza del jabalí 1775 249 × 173 cm Palacio Real (Madrid) [image: img183.jpg] Perros y útiles de caza 1775 112 × 174 cm Museo del Prado (Madrid) [image: img184.jpg] Caza con reclamo 1775 112 × 179 cm Museo del Prado [image: img185.jpg] Partida de caza 1775 290 × 226 cm Museo del Prado [image: img186.jpg] Cazador cargando su escopeta 1775 289 × 90 cm Museo del Prado [image: img187.jpg] El cazador con sus perros 1775 262 × 71 cm Museo del Prado [image: img188.jpg] El pescador de caña 1775 290 × 226 cm Museo del Prado [image: img189.jpg] Tapestry Cartoons — Second Series (1776–1778) La merienda a orillas del Manzanares 1776 271 × 295 cm Museo del Prado [image: img190.jpg] El baile de San Antonio de la Florida 1776–1777 275 × 298 cm Museo del Prado [image: img191.jpg] El bebedor 1777 107 × 151 cm Museo del Prado [image: img192.jpg] El quitasol (The Parasol) 1777 104 × 152 cm Museo del Prado [image: img193.jpg] La maja y los embozados 1777 275 × 190 cm Museo del Prado [image: img194.jpg] La riña en la Venta Nueva 1777 275 × 414 cm Museo del Prado [image: img195.jpg] Jugadores de naipes 1777–1778 270 × 167 cm Museo del Prado [image: img196.jpg] La cometa 1778 269 × 285 cm Museo del Prado [image: img197.jpg] Muchachos cogiendo fruta 1778 119 × 122 cm Museo del Prado [image: img198.jpg] Niños inflando una vejiga 1778 116 × 124 cm Museo del Prado [image: img199.jpg] Tapestry Cartoons — Third Series (1778–1779) El ciego de la guitarra 1778–1779 260 × 311 cm Museo del Prado [image: img200.jpg] El cacharrero 1778–1779 259 × 220 cm Museo del Prado [image: img201.jpg] La acerolera 1778–1779 259 × 100 cm Museo del Prado [image: img202.jpg] La feria de Madrid 1778–1779 258 × 218 cm Museo del Prado [image: img203.jpg] El militar y la señora 1778–1779 259 × 100 cm Museo del Prado [image: img204.jpg] Muchachos jugando a soldados 1779 146 × 94 cm Museo del Prado [image: img205.jpg] El niño del árbol 1779–1780 262 × 40 cm Museo del Prado [image: img206.jpg] El muchacho del pájaro 1779–1780 262 × 40 cm Museo del Prado [image: img207.jpg] El majo de la guitarra 1779 137 × 112 cm Museo del Prado [image: img208.jpg] Tapestry Cartoons — Fourth Series (1779–1780) El columpio 1779 260 × 165 cm Museo del Prado [image: img209.jpg] El juego de la pelota a pala 1779 261 × 470 cm Museo del Prado [image: img210.jpg] El médico 1779 95.8 × 120.2 cm National Gallery of Scotland [image: img211.jpg] El balancín 1780 95.8 × 120.2 cm Museo de Bellas Artes San Pío V (Valencia) [image: img212.jpg] Niños del carretón 1778 30 × 43 cm Toledo Museum of Art (Ohio) [image: img213.jpg] La cita 1779–1780 100 × 151 cm Museo del Prado [image: img214.jpg] El resguardo de tabacos 1779–1780 262 × 137 cm Museo del Prado [image: img215.jpg] Las lavanderas 1779–1780 218 × 166 cm Museo del Prado [image: img216.jpg] Los leñadores 1780 141 × 114 cm Museo del Prado [image: img217.jpg] La novillada 1780 259 × 136 cm Museo del Prado [image: img218.jpg] Tapestry Cartoons — Fifth Series (1786–1787) Niños con mastines 1786–1787 112 × 145 cm Museo del Prado [image: img219.jpg] Niño montando un carnero 1786–1787 127.2 × 112.1 cm Art Institute of Chicago (Illinois) [image: img220.jpg] Las floreras 1786–1787 277 × 192 cm Museo del Prado [image: img221.jpg] La nevada 1786–1787 275 × 293 cm Museo del Prado [image: img222.jpg] El albañil herido 1786–1787 268 × 110 cm Museo del Prado [image: img223.jpg] Los pobres en la fuente 1786–1787 277 × 115 cm Museo del Prado [image: img224.jpg] Riña de gatos 1786–1787 56 × 193 cm Museo del Prado [image: img225.png] La vendimia 1786–1787 275 × 190 cm Museo del Prado [image: img226.jpg] La marica en un árbol 1786–1787 279 × 28 cm Museo del Prado [image: img227.jpg] La era 1786–1787 276 × 641 cm Museo del Prado [image: img228.jpg] Cazador junto a una fuente 1786–1788 130 × 131 cm Museo del Prado [image: img229.jpg] Pastor tocando la dulzaina 1786–1788 130 × 134 cm Museo del Prado [image: img230.jpg] Tapestry Cartoons — Sixth Series (1787–1788) La pradera de San Isidro 1788 44 × 94 cm Museo del Prado [image: img231.jpg] La ermita de San Isidro el día de la fiesta 1788 42 × 44 cm Museo del Prado [image: img232.jpg] La gallina ciega (Blind man’s bluff) 1788–1789 269 × 350 cm Museo del Prado [image: img233.jpg] Merienda campestre 1786 41.3 × 25.8 cm National Gallery of London [image: img234.jpg] Gato acosado 1786 42 × 15.5 cm Colección particular (Madrid) [image: img235.jpg] Tapestry Cartoons — Seventh Series (1791–1792) Mujeres conversando 1791–1792 59 × 145 cm Wadsworth Atheneum (Hartford) [image: img236.jpg] Las gigantillas 1791–1792 137 × 104 cm Museo del Prado [image: img237.jpg] Los zancos 1791–1792 137 × 104 cm Museo del Prado [image: img238.jpg] La boda 1791–1792 268 × 320 cm Museo del Prado [image: img239.jpg] Las mozas del cántaro 1791–1792 262 × 160 cm Museo del Prado [image: img240.jpg] Muchachos trepando a un árbol 1791–1792 141 × 111 cm Museo del Prado [image: img241.jpg] El pelele 1791–1792 267 × 160 cm Museo del Prado [image: img242.jpg] Tapestry Sketches Niños jugando a soldados 1775 39 × 28 cm Colección Yanduri (Sevilla) [image: img243.jpg] El ciego de la guitarra 1778 Biblioteca Nacional (Madrid) [image: img244.png] Las lavanderas 1779 86.5 × 59 cm Winterthur Collection (Winterthur) [image: img245.jpg] La primavera 1786–1787 35 × 24 cm Colección de Montellano (Madrid) [image: img246.jpg] La trilla 1786–1787 34 × 76 cm Museo Lázaro Galdiano (Madrid) [image: img247.jpg] The Grape Harvest 1786 267.5 × 190.5 cm Museo del Prado (Madrid) [image: img248.jpg] El invierno 1786–1787 34.3 × 36.6 cm Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago) [image: img249.jpg] El albañil borracho 1786 35 × 15 cm Museo del Prado [image: img250.jpg] Mujer y dos niños junto a una fuente 1786–1787 18.5 × 3.5 cm Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum (Madrid) [image: img251.jpg] La gallina ciega 1788–1789 18.5 × 3.5 cm Museo del Prado [image: img252.jpg] Mozas del cántaro 1791 34 × 21 cm Colección Paloma McCrohon (Madrid) [image: img253.jpg] El pelele 1791 35.6 × 23.2 cm Armand Hammer Museum of Art (Los Angeles) [image: img254.jpg] 1780’s [image: img255.jpg] Crucified Christ 1780 Oil on canvas 255 x 154 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img256.jpg] The Holy Family c.1780 Oil on canvas 200 x 148 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img257.jpg] Portrait of Maria Teresa de Vallabriga on horseback 1783 Oil on canvas 82.5 x 61.7 cm Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy [image: img258.jpg] Portait of Maria Teresa de Borbón y Vallabriga Oil on canvas National Gallery of Art, Washingon, DC, USA 1783 [image: img259.jpg] Self Portrait 1783 Oil on canvas 86 x 60 cm Musée Agen, France [image: img260.jpg] St. Bernardino of Siena preaching to Alfonso V of Aragon 1783 [image: img261.jpg] The Count of Floridablanca 1783 Oil on canvas 260 x 166 cm Private Collection [image: img262.jpg] The Family of the Infante Don Luis 1784 Oil on canvas 630 x 838 cm Private Collection [image: img263.jpg] Don Pedro, Duke of Osuna c. 1785 Oil on canvas [image: img264.jpg] The Esquilache Riots Oil on canvas c. 1785 [image: img265.jpg] The School Scene Oil on canvas 19.7 x 38.7 cm Museo de Zaragoza c. 1785 [image: img266.jpg] Woman with a Fan Oil on canvas c. 1785 [image: img267.jpg] Duchess Countess of Benavente 1785 Oil on canvas 104 x 80 cm Fundacia n Bartoloma March Servera, Spain [image: img268.jpg] The Annunciation 1785 Oil on canvas 280 x 177 cm Private Collection [image: img269.jpg] The Annunciation c.1785 Oil on canvas 42 x 26 cm Private Collection [image: img270.jpg] Wife of Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez c.1785 Oil on canvas 121 x 84.5 cm Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest, Hungary [image: img271.jpg] Marquesa Mariana de Pontejos c.1786 Oil on canvas 212 x 126 cm National Gallery of Art, Washingon, DC, USA [image: img272.jpg] Boys with Mastiff Oil on canvas 112 x 145 cm 1786 [image: img273.jpg] Don Manuel Osorio Manrique de Zuniga c.1787 Oil on canvas 127 x 101.6 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City [image: img274.jpg] Highwaymen Attacking a Coach 1787 Oil on canvas 169 x 127 cm Private Collection [image: img275.jpg] Sketch for ‘The Death of Saint Joseph’ c.1787 Oil on canvas 54.9 x 46.4 cm Flint Institute of Arts, United States [image: img276.jpg] The Fall or The Accident 1787 Oil on canvas 169 x 89 cm Private Collection [image: img277.jpg] The Greasy Pole 1787 Oil on canvas 169 x 88 cm Private Collection [image: img278.jpg] Village Procession 1787 Oil on canvas 169 x 137 cm Private Collection [image: img279.jpg] Charles III 1788 Oil on canvas Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img280.jpg] Equestrian portrait of Maria Luisa of Parma 1788 [image: img281.jpg] Francisco de Cabarrus 1788 Oil on canvas 210 x 127 cm Private Collection [image: img282.jpg] The Arrest of Christ 1788 Oil on canvas 40 x 23 cm Toledo Cathedral, Spain [image: img283.jpg] The Duke of Osuna and his Family 1788 Oil on canvas 225 x 174 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img284.jpg] María Luisa of Parma wearing panniers 1789 Oil on canvas 205 x 132 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img285.jpg] Portrait of Charles IV of Spain 1789 Oil on canvas 127 x 94 cm Museo Lazaro Galdiano, Madrid, Spain [image: img286.jpg] Witches Sabbath 1789 Oil on canvas 44 x 31 cm Museo Lázaro Galdiano, Madrid, Spain [image: img287.jpg] 1790’s [image: img288.jpg] The ill matched Couple Oil on tin Musée du Louvre, Paris, France c. 1792 [image: img289.jpg] Sebastian Martinez 1792 Oil on canvas 93 x 68 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City [image: img290.jpg] Attack on a Coach 1793 50 x 32 cm Private Collection [image: img291.jpg] Dona Tadea Arias de Enriquez 1793 Oil on canvas 181 x 122 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img292.jpg] Picador Caught by the Bull 1793 Oil on tin 43 x 32 cm Private Collection [image: img293.jpg] Portrait of the Countess of Carpio, Marquesa de la Solana 1793 Oil on canvas 122 x 181 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris, France [image: img294.jpg] Procession of Flagellants 1793 Oil on panel 46 x 73 cm Museo de la Real Academia de San Fernando, Madrid, Spain [image: img295.jpg] The Strolling Players 1793 Oil on canvas 43 x 32 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img296.jpg] Fire at Night 1794 Oil on tin 50 x 32 cm Private Collection [image: img297.jpg] Robbery c.1794 Oil on canvas 69 x 107.5 cm Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest, Hungary [image: img298.jpg] The Shipwreck 1794 Oil on canvas 50 x 32 cm Bowes Museum, England [image: img299.jpg] The Yard of a Madhouse 1794 Oil on tin 43.8 x 31.7 cm Private Collection [image: img300.jpg] Duchess of Alba, The White Duchess 1795 Oil on canvas 194 x 130 cm Private Collection [image: img301.jpg] Duke of Alba 1795 Oil on canvas 195 x 126 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img302.jpg] Francisco Bayeu 1795 Oil on canvas 113 x 84 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img303.jpg] Self portrait 1795 Oil on canvas 18.2 x 12.2 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img304.jpg] Self-portrait in the Studio c.1795 Oil on canvas 42 x 28 cm Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, Spain [image: img305.jpg] St. Francis Borgia Helping a Dying Impenitent 1795 Oil on canvas 38 x 29 cm Valencia Cathedral, Valencia, Spain [image: img306.jpg] The Duchess of Alba and Her Duenna 1795 Oil on canvas 30.5 x 25 cm Private Collection [image: img307.jpg] Incantation 1797 Oil on canvas [image: img308.jpg] Juan Antonio Melendez Valdes 1797 Oil on canvas 73.3 x 57.1 cm Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle, County Durham, UK [image: img309.jpg] Martín Zapater 1797 Oil on canvas 83 x 65 cm Museo de Bellas Artes, Bilbao, Spain [image: img310.jpg] St. Gregory the Great 1797 Oil on canvas 190 x 115 cm Museo Romantico, Madrid, Spain [image: img311.jpg] The Duchess of Alba 1797 Oil on canvas 210 x 148 cm Hispanic Society of America, New York, United States [image: img312.jpg] Pedro Romero c. 1798 [image: img313.jpg] Asensio Juliá c.1798 Oil on canvas 55 x 41 cm Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain [image: img314.jpg] Don Andres del Peral 1798 Oil on panel 95 x 65.7 cm National Gallery, London, UK [image: img315.jpg] Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos c.1798 Oil on canvas 205 x 133 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img316.jpg] Portrait of Ferdinand Guillemardet 1798 Oil on canvas 186 x 124 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris, France [image: img317.jpg] The Arrest of Christ 1798 Oil on canvas 40 x 23 cm Treasury, Toledo Cathedral, Castilla y Leon, Spain [image: img318.jpg] The Miracle of St. Anthony 1798 Fresco Ermita de San Antonio de la Florida, Madrid, Spain [image: img319.jpg] Witches in the Air 1798 Oil on canvas 43.5 x 31.5 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img320.jpg] King Carlos IV in Hunting Costume 1799 Oil on canvas 210 x 130 cm Palacio Real Madrid, Spain [image: img321.jpg] La Tirana 1799 Oil on canvas 206 x 130 cm Museo de la Real Academia de San Fernando, Madrid [image: img322.jpg] Portrait of Leandro Fernandez de Moratin Oil on canvas 56 x 73 cm Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, Spain 1799 [image: img323.png] Queen María Luisa Wearing a Mantilla 1799 Oil on canvas 210 x 130 cm Palacio Real Madrid, Spain [image: img324.jpg] Saint Ambrose 1799 Oil on canvas 190 x 133 cm Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH, USA [image: img325.jpg] Saint Gregory 1799 Oil on canvas 190 x 115 cm Museo Romantico, Spain [image: img326.jpg] 1800’s [image: img327.jpg] Mariana Waldstein, Ninth Marquesa de Santa Cruz Oil on canvas 142 x 97 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris, France c. 1800 [image: img328.jpg] The Count of Tajo Oil on canvas 1800 [image: img329.jpg] Sleep Oil on canvas 44.5 cm x 77 cm National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland c.1800 [image: img330.jpg] Brigand Murdering a Woman 1800 Oil on canvas 105.4 x 80.7 cm Private Collection [image: img331.jpg] Cardinal Luis Maria de Borbon y Vallabriga c. 1800 Oil on canvas [image: img332.jpg] Brigand Stripping a Woman 1800 Oil on canvas 41.5 x 31.8 cm Private Collection [image: img333.jpg] Brother Juan Fernandez de Rojas 1800 Oil on canvas 75 x 54 cm Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, Spain [image: img334.jpg] Cardinal Luis Maria de Borbon y Vallabriga 1800 Oil on canvas 200 x 106 cm Museo de Arte de Sao Paulo, Brazil [image: img335.jpg] Charles IV of Spain and his family 1800 Oil on canvas 280 x 336 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img336.jpg] Nude Maja 1800 Oil on canvas 98 x 191 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img337.jpg] The Clothed Maja 1800 Oil on canvas 95 x 190 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img338.jpg] Plague Hospital 1800 Oil on canvas 32.5 x 57.3 cm Private Collection [image: img339.jpg] Portrait of the Countess of Chincon 1800 Oil on canvas 140 x 220 cm Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy [image: img340.jpg] Sketch for Truth Rescued by Time, Witnessed by History 1800 Oil on canvas 42 x 32.5 cm [image: img341.jpg] Vagabonds Resting in a Cave 1800 Oil on canvas 33 x 57 cm Private Collection [image: img342.jpg] Manuel Godoy, Duke of Alcudia, ‘Prince of Peace’ 1801 Oil on canvas 180 x 267 cm Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, Spain [image: img343.jpg] Portrait of Carlos IV with a Horse 1801 Oil on canvas [image: img344.jpg] Self Portrait with Spectacles c.1801 Oil on canvas 63 x 49 cm Musee Bonnat, Bayonne, France [image: img345.jpg] Portrait of Don José Queralto c.1802 Oil on canvas Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany [image: img346.jpg] Count Fernand Nunez VII 1803 Oil on canvas 211 x 137 cm Private Collection [image: img347.jpg] Allegory of Industry 1804 Oil on canvas [image: img348.jpg] Dona María Tomasa Palafox, The Marquesa de Villafranca Painting her Husband 1804 Oil on canvas 195 x 126 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img349.jpg] The Bookseller’s Wife Oil on canvas c. 1804 [image: img350.jpg] Portrait of Marqués de San Adrián Oil on canvas c. 1804 [image: img351.jpg] Portrait of Antonia Zárate c.1805 Oil on canvas 103.5 x 81.9 cm National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland [image: img352.jpg] Portrait of Pedro Mocarte, a Singer of the Cathedral of Toledo Oil on canvas c. 1805-1806 [image: img353.jpg] Dona Teresa Sureda c.1805 Oil on canvas 119.8 x 79.4 cm National Gallery of Art, Washingon, DC, USA [image: img354.jpg] Portrait of the Joaquina, nee Tellez Giron y Alfonso Pimental 1805 Oil on canvas 125 x 207 cm Private Collection [image: img355.jpg] Portrait of Senora Berm sezne Kepmesa Oil on canvas c. 1806 [image: img356.jpg] Bartholomew Suerda c.1806 Oil on canvas 119.7 x 79.4 cm National Gallery of Art, Washingon, DC, USA [image: img357.jpg] Dona Isabel de Porcel 1806 Oil on canvas 82 x 54.6 cm National Gallery, London, UK [image: img358.jpg] Portrait of José Antonio, Marqués de Caballero 1807 Oil on canvas 105.5 x 84 cm Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest, Hungary [image: img359.jpg] Portrait of the Artist Julio Asensio Oil on canvas c. 1807 [image: img360.jpg] Portrait of Isidoro Máiquez Oil on canvas 72 × 59 cm Prado Museum 1807 [image: img361.jpg] Francisca Sabasa y Garcia 1808 Oil on canvas 71 x 58 cm National Gallery of Art, Washingon, DC, USA [image: img362.jpg] 1810’s [image: img363.jpg] Majas on a Balcony Oil on canvas 193 x 124.5 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City c. 1810 [image: img364.png] Portrait of Victor Guye Oil on canvas 1810 National Gallery of Art, Washington [image: img365.jpg] Portrait of the Bullfighter Pedro Romero Oil on canvas c. 1810 [image: img366.jpg] Allegory of the City of Madrid 1810 Oil on canvas 260 x 195 cm Museo Municipal, Madrid, Spain [image: img367.jpg] Dona Narcisa Baranana de Goicoechea c.1810 Oil on canvas 112 x 78 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City [image: img368.jpg] Actress Antonia Zarate c.1811 Oil on canvas 71 x 58 cm Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia [image: img369.jpg] Dead Birds 1812 Oil on canvas Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img370.jpg] Dead Turkey 1812 Oil on canvas 45 x 63 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img371.jpg] Juan Antonio Llorente c.1812 Oil on canvas 189.2 x 114.3 cm Museo de Arte de Sao Paulo, Brazil [image: img372.jpg] Knife Grinder 1812 Oil on canvas 68 x 50.5 cm Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest, Hungary [image: img373.jpg] Maja and Celestina on a Balcony 1812 Oil on canvas 166 x 108 cm Private Collection [image: img374.jpg] Maunel Silvela c.1812 Oil on canvas 95 x 68 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img375.jpg] Scene of Rape and Murder 1812 30.5 x 39.8 cm Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main, Germany [image: img376.jpg] Still life of Sheep’s Ribs and Head - The Butcher’s conter 1812 Oil on canvas 45 x 62 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris, France [image: img377.jpg] Still Life Three Salmon Steaks 1812 Oil on canvas 45 x 62 cm Oskar Reinhart Foundation, Winterthur, Switzerland [image: img378.jpg] Still life, plucked turkey and pan with fish 1812 Oil on canvas 45 x 62.5 cm Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany [image: img379.jpg] The Colossus 1812 Oil on canvas 116 x 105 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img380.jpg] Water Carrier 1812 Oil on canvas 68 x 52 cm Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest, Hungary [image: img381.jpg] Pepito Costa and Bonells 1813 Oil on canvas 105 x 85 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City [image: img382.jpg] Portrait of Juan Martin Diaz Oil on canvas c. 1814-15 [image: img383.jpg] A Prison Scene c.1814 Oil on canvas 42.9 x 31.7 cm Bowes Museum, England [image: img384.jpg] A Village Bullfight Oil on canvas 45 x 72 cm Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, Spain 1814 [image: img385.jpg] The Second of May, 1808: The Charge of the Mamelukes 1814 Oil on canvas 266 x 345 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img386.jpg] The Third of May 1808 (Execution of the Defenders of Madrid) 1814 Oil on canvas 266 x 345 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img387.jpg] Ferdinand VII c.1814 Oil on canvas 207 x 144 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img388.jpg] Fernando VII 1814 Oil on canvas 225.5 x 124.5 cm Museo de Bellas Artes de Santander, Spain [image: img389.jpg] General Jose de Palafox 1814 Oil on canvas 248 x 224 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img390.jpg] Portrait of Ferdinand VII 1814 Oil on canvas 212 x 146 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img391.jpg] Portrait of Mariano Goya 1814 Oil on panel 59 x 47 cm Private Collection [image: img392.jpg] Portrait of Josepha Bayeu or Leocadia Weiss c.1814 Oil on canvas 81 x 56 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img393.jpg] Powder Factory in the Sierra c.1814 Oil on canvas 33 x 52 cm [image: img394.jpg] The Burial of the Sardine 1814 Oil on canvas 60 x 82 cm Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, Spain [image: img395.jpg] The Duke of Wellington Oil on canvas 64.3 cm × 52.4 cm (25.3 in × 20.6 in) National Gallery, London 1814 [image: img396.jpg] The Duke of Wellington c. 1814 [image: img397.jpg] The Madhouse 1814 Oil on canvas 45 x 72 cm Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, Spain [image: img398.jpg] Prison Scene Oil on canvas c. 1814 [image: img399.jpg] Truth Rescued by Time, Witnessed by History 1814 Oil on canvas 294 x 244 cm Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, Sweden [image: img400.jpg] Duke of San Carlos 1815 Oil on canvas 237 x 153 cm Museo de Zaragoza, Spain [image: img401.jpg] Self Portrait 1815 Oil on canvas 51 x 46 cm Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, Spain [image: img402.jpg] Self Portrait 1815 Oil on canvas 51 x 46 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img403.jpg] The Junta of the Philippines 1815 Oil on canvas 327 x 447 cm Musee Goya, Castres, France [image: img404.jpg] Portrait of Don Francisco de Borja Tellez Giron c.1816 Oil on canvas 140 x 202 cm Musee Bonnat, Bayonne, France [image: img405.jpg] Scene of a Bullfight Oil on canvas 1816 [image: img406.jpg] Queen Maria Luisa Oil on canvas c. 1816 [image: img407.jpg] Bullfight Oil on canvas Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 1816 [image: img408.jpg] The Forge c.1816 Oil on canvas 181.6 x 125 cm Frick Collection, New York, USA [image: img409.jpg] Christ on the Mount of Olives 1819 Oil on panel 47 x 35 cm Colegio Escolapios de San Anton, Madrid, Spain [image: img410.jpg] Don Juan Antonio Cuervo 1819 Oil on canvas 120 x 87 cm Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH, USA [image: img411.jpg] El Lazarillo de Tormes 1819 Oil on canvas 80 x 65 cm Private Collection [image: img412.jpg] Inquisition Scene 1819 Oil on panel 46 x 73 cm Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, Spain [image: img413.jpg] The Last Communion of St. Joseph Calasanz 1819 Oil on panel 43 x 33 cm Musee Bonnat, Bayonne, France [image: img414.jpg] Young Woman with a Letter 1819 Oil on canvas 181 x 125 cm Palais des Beaux Arts, Lille, France [image: img415.jpg] 1820’s [image: img416.jpg] Goya Attended by Doctor Arrieta 1820 Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA [image: img417.jpg] Portrait of Maria Teresa of Ballabriga, Countess of Chinchon Oil on canvas Private Collection 1820 [image: img418.png] Time of the Old Women 1820 Oil on canvas 181 x 125 cm Musee des Beaux-Arts, Lille, France [image: img419.jpg] Tio Paquete c.1820 Oil on canvas 39.1 x 31.1 cm Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Madrid, Spain [image: img420.jpg] The Great He-Goat Or Witches Sabbath Oil on canvas 438 x 140 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain 1821–23 [image: img421.jpg] Tubercio Pérez Cuervo 1820 Oil on canvas 102 x 81 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City [image: img422.jpg] Infante Don Sebastián Gabriel de Borbón y Braganza 1822 Oil on canvas 144 x 105 cm Private Collection [image: img423.jpg] Asmodea 1823 Oil on canvas 123 x 265 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img424.jpg] The Dog Oil, plaster 80 x 134 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain c. 1823 [image: img425.jpg] The Fates 1823 Oil, plaster 123 x 266 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img426.jpg] Don Ramon Satue 1823 Oil on canvas 107 x 83.5 cm Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Netherlands [image: img427.jpg] Fight with Cudgels 1823 Oil on canvas 123 x 266 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img428.jpg] Judith and Holovernes 1823 Oil on canvas 143.5 x 81.4 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img429.jpg] Leocadia 1823 Oil on canvas 147.5 x 129.4 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img430.jpg] Heads in a Landscape 1823 Oil on canvas Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img431.jpg] Men Reading 1823 Oil on canvas 126 x 66 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img432.jpg] Two Old Men Eating Soup 1823 Oil on canvas 83.4 x 49.3 cm [image: img433.jpg] Promenade of the Holy Office 1823 Oil on canvas 123 x 266 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img434.jpg] Saturn Devouring His Son 1823 Oil on canvas 83 x 146 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img435.jpg] The Pilgrimage of San Isidro 1823 Oil on canvas 140 x 438 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img436.jpg] Two Old Men 1823 Oil, plaster 146 x 66 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img437.jpg] Bildzyklus Oil on canvas 31 x 45 cm 1823 [image: img438.jpg] Young People Laughing 1823 Oil on canvas 125 x 65.5 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img439.jpg] Portrait of the Poet Moratín 1824 Oil on canvas 60 x 49.5 cm Museo de Bellas Artes, Bilbao, Spain [image: img440.jpg] The Repentant Saint Peter c.1824 Oil on canvas 29 x 25.5 cm Philips Collection, Washington DC, USA [image: img441.jpg] Still life with fruit, bottles, breads 1826 Oil on canvas 45 x 62 cm Oskar Reinhart Foundation, Winterthur, Switzerland [image: img442.jpg] Jose Pio de Molina Oil on canvas 1827-28 Museum Oskar Reinhart [image: img443.jpg] Mariano Goya Oil on canvas c. 1827 [image: img444.jpg] Juan Bautista de Muguiro 1827 Oil on canvas 103 x 84 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img445.jpg] The Milkmaid of Bordeaux 1827 Oil on canvas 74 x 68 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain [image: img446.jpg] The Drawings [image: img447.jpg] Quinta del Sordo, c. 1900 — the house purchased by Goya in 1819, situated on the banks of the Manzanares, near Madrid LIST OF PRINTS AND DRAWINGS [image: img448.jpg] CONTENTS Miscellaneous Drawings Self Portrait Self-portrait The Duchess of Alba Arranging her Hair Couple with Parasol on the Paseo Naked girl looking in the mirror They Sing for the Composer Woman battered with a Cane Josefa Bayeu War Scene Gumersinda Goicoechea, Goya’s Daughter in Law Blind singer May the rope break Nothing. The event will tell Old swinging Portrait of Javier Goya, the Artist’s Son Self Portrait The Monk I am Still Learning Lunatic behind Bars Phantom Dancing with Castanets Colossus Los Caprichos Capricho 1: Francisco Goya y Lucientes, pintor (Francisco Goya y Lucientes, painter) Capricho 2: El sí pronuncian y la mano alargan al primero que llega (They say yes and give their hand to the first comer) Capricho 3: Que viene el coco (Here comes the bogeyman) Capricho 4: El de la Rollona (Nanny’s boy) Capricho 5: Tal para cual (Two of a kind) Capricho 6: Nadie se conoce (Nobody knows himself) Capricho 7: Ni así la distingue (Even thus he cannot make her